It can be a hard old life!
This sad Amphibious Bistort Persicaria amphibia been attacked by the gall midge Wachtliella persicariae. The midges overwinter as pupae in the soil and the adults emerge in the spring and lay eggs on the folds of immature leaves. The eggs take 2-10 days to hatch into larvae that begin feeding on the leaves. The leaf margins respond by become tightly curled into distorted tubes, which turn red, then brown and brittle. The larvae continue to feed and grow within the tubes and eventually drop off into the soil where they pupate overwinter.
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