By Melisseus

Full Circle

A citadel is a fortress or stronghold within or near to a city, potentially including a castle. I read that some of the earliest examples are found in Anatolia - which comprises most of modern Turkey. A citadel is also a meeting hall of the Salvation Army, who had a strong presence in many northern English towns - it would not be surprising if some of the streets where they were found took on the name 

However, in this case, It is a fair bet (something the Sally Army would not approve of) that the citadel in question is the one out of shot to the left and behind me - a fortified gatehouse to the city of Carlisle, built by Henry VIII in 1541, sadly not open to the public, and seemingly little esteemed by the city, despite its imposing presence as you leave the rail station, and it's Grade 1 listed status

The red sandstone building in the background houses the Nat West Bank, but was built in 1878 as the Bush Hotel, replacing a former hotel building. It is said here to be a replica of the architectural style of the Stuart period

At the other end of Citadel Row is a canon (extra) displayed below the citadel walls. It was used in the defence of the city during the 1745 Uprising by the Catholic, Stuart ('Jacobite') 'Old and Young Pretenders' to the English throne, seeking to overturn the 'Glorious Revolution' which had replaced the Catholic James II with his protestant successor (and distant relation) Mary and her Dutch, protestant husband William of Orange

The 'citadel' to which the city garrison retreated, before meekly surrendering, was not the building that now bears that name, but Carlisle Castle, which the Jacobite army occupied and retained until the Stuart rebellion was finally quashed at the (in)famous battle of Culloden, the last true battle fought on British soil. Culloden marked the end of any prospect of a Catholic restoration in England and a rather ignominious end to 650 years of life as a citadel for Carlisle castle

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